map of ptolemaic egypt


The Ptolemies therefore limited the number of Greek city-states in Egypt to Alexandria, Ptolemais, and Naucratis. Philopator was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, his empire quickly unraveled amid competing claims by the diadochi, his closest friends and companions. 書名 The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt. Outside of Egypt, the Ptolemies exercised control over Greek cities in Cyrenaica, Cyprus, and on the coasts and islands of the Aegean, but they were smaller than Greek poleis in Egypt. Cippi during the Ptolemaic Period generally featured the child form of the Egyptian god Horus, Horpakhered. Military leadership and the figure of the king and queen were central for ensuring unity and morale among multiethnic troops; at the battle of Raphai, the presence of Ptolemy was reportedly critical in maintaining and boosting the fighting spirit of both Greek and Egyptians soldiers. They were partly spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming social groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side with the native population, partly gathered in the three Greek cities, the old Naucratis, founded before 600 BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria by the sea, and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. 129 votes, 18 comments. Yet if they had no place of political assembly, they often had their own gymnasium, the essential sign of Hellenism, serving something of the purpose of a university for the young men. A sign of the domestic weakness of his reign was the rebellions by native Egyptians that took away over half the country for over 20 years. Fortunately, Ptolemy I had left Egypt strong and prosperous; three years of campaigning in the First Syrian War made the Ptolemies masters of the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands (the Nesiotic League) and the coastal districts of Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. [83] Greeks soon became the dominant elite; native Egyptians, though always the majority, generally occupied lower posts in the Ptolemaic government. It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy 's book Geography, written c. 150. Subsequently, uprising and social unrest were frequent, especially by the early third century BC. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Egypt - Phoenicia - Palestine (Kiepert, Atlas Antiquus - Map 3).jpg, 1123 of '(F. C. Schlosser's Weltgeschichte für das deutsche Volk. [37], Despite the unification of Greek and Egyptian elements in the intermediate Ptolemaic period, the Ptolemaic Kingdom also featured prominent temple construction as a continuation of developments based on Egyptian art tradition from the Thirtieth Dynasty. Ptolemy I died in 283 BC at the age of 84. And the number of Greek men of letters during the Ptolemaic and Roman period, who were citizens of Naucratis, proves that in the sphere of Hellenic culture Naucratis held to its traditions. The Jews who lived in Egypt had originally immigrated from the Southern Levant. [64] With territories and vassals spread across the eastern Mediterranean, including Cyprus, Crete, the Aegean islands, and Thrace, the Ptolemies required a large navy to defend against enemies like the Seleucids and Macedonians. Ptolemaic art was produced during the reign of the Ptolemaic Rulers (304–30 BC), and was concentrated primarily within the bounds of the Ptolemaic Empire. 1.1m members in the MapPorn community. The continuation of the Egyptian art style evidences the Ptolemies' commitment to maintaining Egyptian customs. Other prominent scholars include the mathematicians Conon of Samos and Apollonius of Perge.[16]. Chapter: Naval Power, the Ptolemies and the Maritime Aphrodite. Its scholars were housed in the same sector and funded by Ptolemaic rulers. Cleopatra's children by Antony were spared by Octavian and given to his sister (and Antony's Roman wife) Octavia Minor, to be raised in her household. . Over time, the Greeks in Egypt became somewhat homogenized and the cultural distinctions between immigrants from different regions of Greece became blurred.[84]. Library Philosophy and Practice, August 2010,, States and territories established in the 4th century BC, States and territories disestablished in the 1st century BC, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2020, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Koinē Greek-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2011, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Lloyd, Alan Brian. His first objective was to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to increase his domain. [63] Some modern historians characterize Egypt during this period as a thalassocracy, owing to its innovation of "traditional styles of Mediterranean sea power", which allowed its rulers to "exert power and influence in unprecedented ways". "The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander the Great". Seleucus II Callinicus kept his throne, but Egyptian fleets controlled most of the coasts of Anatolia and Greece. Their naval forces met at Actium, where the forces of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. In, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 00:42. Together, they visited Dendara, where Cleopatra was being worshiped as pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach. [62], The Ptolemaic Kingdom was considered a major naval power in the eastern Mediterranean. [citation needed] Naucratis, therefore, in spite of its general Hellenic character, had an Egyptian element. He spent lavishly on making Alexandria the economic, artistic and intellectual capital of the Hellenistic world. At the Great Harbor's mouth, on an outcropping of Pharos, stood the lighthouse, built c. 280 BC. During his stay in Egypt, he also founded the legendary city of Alexandriaat the location of the formerly unimportant Egyptian town of Rhakotis. The young king was driven out by his mother in 107 BC, who reigned jointly with Euergetes's youngest son Ptolemy X Alexander I. Vines from regions like Crete were planted in Egypt in an attempt to produce Greek wines. The following 79 files are in this category, out of 79 total. If there is some doubt whether Alexandria possessed a council and assembly, there is none in regard to Ptolemais. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322–301 BC). Egypt had only three main Greek cities—Alexandria, Naucratis, and Ptolemais. After Ptolemy VI's death a series of civil wars and feuds between the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty started and would last for over a century. In 221 BC, Ptolemy III died and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy IV Philopator, a weak king whose rule precipitated the decline of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy II bestowed his care upon Naucratis. When Alexander died, the Hellenistic empire died with him but separated into multiple nation states. [43] The Ptolemies generally adhered to traditional architectural styles and motifs. Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, 5.34.6-7 & 9. xvi, 286pp. Macedonians and other Greeks now formed the new upper classes, replacing the old native aristocracy. In his will Antony expressed his desire to be buried in Alexandria, rather than taken to Rome in the event of his death, which Octavian used against Antony, sowing further dissent in the Roman populace. The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Egypt (Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae ˈɡʏptʊs]; Koinē Greek: Αἴγυπτος, romanized: Aígyptos, pronounced [ɛ ːɡyptos]) was established as a Roman province in 30 BC after Octavian (the future Roman emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to the Roman Empire. Although the backpillar and the goddess's striding pose is distinctively Egyptian, the cornucopia she holds and her hairstyle are both Greek in style. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. [8] Beginning with Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Ptolemies began to adopt Egyptian customs, such as marrying their siblings per the Osiris myth, and participating in Egyptian religious life. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. [29] Art found outside of Egypt itself, though within the Ptolemaic Kingdom, sometimes used Egyptian iconography as it had been used previously, and sometimes adapted it.[30][31]. Arthur MacCartney Shepard, Sea Power in Ancient History: The Story of the Navies of Classic Greece and Rome (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1924), 128. At least from about 230 BC, these land grants were provided to machimoi, lower ranking infantry usually of Egyptian origin, who received smaller lots comparable to traditional land allotments in Egypt. [28] Greek-style art was also created during this time and existed in parallel to the more traditional Egyptian art, which could not be altered significantly without changing its intrinsic, primarily-religious function. Philometor eventually regained the throne. "Queen Arsinoë II, the Maritime Aphrodite and Early Ptolemaic Ruler Cult". [11] He visited Memphis, and traveled to the oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis. Many rulers also promoted individual cults of personality, including celebrations at Egyptian temples. Other foreign groups settled from across the ancient world, usually as cleruchs who had been granted land in exchange for military service. [69] Notwithstanding an early crushing defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC, the Ptolemaic navy became the dominant maritime force in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean for the next several decades. With his death, Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian. Callimachus, keeper of the Library of Alexandria, Theocritus, and a host of other poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. [43], A common stele that appears during the Ptolemaic Dynasty is the cippus, a type of religious object produced for the purpose of protecting individuals. A Macedonian general by the name of Ptolemy, who had been with Alexander in Egypt, declared himself satrap of Egypt. The most significant of these was the Temple of Horus at Edfu, one of the masterpieces of ancient Egyptian temple architecture and now the best-preserved of all Egyptian temples. However, the Marble head of a Ptolemaic queen deified Arsinoe II as Hera. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, invaded Egypt, which at the time was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire known as the Thirty-first Dynasty under Emperor Artaxerxes III. Fleeing into exile, Cleopatra would attempt to raise an army to reclaim the throne. Philometor's younger brother (later Ptolemy VIII Physcon) was installed as king by the Ptolemaic court in Alexandria. The multiethnic nature of the Ptolemaic army was an official organizational principle: soldiers were evidently trained and utilized based on their national origin; Cretans generally served as archers, Libyans as heavy infantry, and Thracians as cavalry. It was attached, in the administrative system, to the Saïte nome. 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