soviet political commissar

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In 1919, the title politruk (Russian: политрук, from политический руководитель, political leader) was assigned to political officers at company level, despite being official political commissars, they were not addressed as "commissar". [15] Voroshilov was nonetheless made the scapegoat for the initial failures in Finland. It demanded that any Soviet political commissar identified … Voroshilov initially argued that thousands of Polish army officers captured in September 1939 should be released, but he later signed the order for their execution in the Katyn massacre of 1940. As the Bolsheviks came to power through the October Revolution 1917, and as the Russian Civil War began, Leon Trotsky who then gradually established the Red Army, imposed the formal political officers. The political supervision of the Russian military was effected by the political commissar, who was introduced to every unit and formation, from company- to division-level, including the navy. Earlier, in 1924, the RVSs were renamed as Military Councils, such high-level political officers were known as ChVS (Chlen Voennogo Soveta, Member of the Military Council), they were abolished in 1934. Voroshilov was elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party in 1921, and in 1925 Stalin appointed him People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs (later People's Commissars for Defence). [13] He attributed the poor showing of the Hungarian Communist Party in the October 1945 Budapest municipal elections to the number of minorities in leadership positions, arguing that it was 'detrimental to the party that its leaders are not of Hungarian origin'.[20]. Although there was a huge difference betwee… The Commissar Vanishes has been hailed as a brilliant, indispensable record of an era. As Political Commissar serving co-equally with Stalin, Voroshilov was responsible for the morale of the 1st Cavalry Army, which was composed chiefly of peasants from southern Russia.[5][6]. These were almost invariably tasked to make sure the communist partyof the respective country could count on the loyalty of the Army. [citation needed] Voroshilov followed this retort by smashing a platter of roast suckling pig on the table. [17], After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Voroshilov became commander of the short-lived Northwestern Direction (July to August 1941), controlling several fronts. [18] However, the style of counterattack he launched had long since been abandoned by strategists and drew mostly contempt from his military colleagues;[13] he failed to prevent the Germans from surrounding Leningrad and he was dismissed from his post and replaced by the far abler Georgy Zhukov on 8 September 1941. Voroshilov was then made Deputy Premier responsible for cultural matters. Chiang Ching-kuo, appointed as Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) director of Secret Police in 1950, was educated in the Soviet Union, and initiated Soviet style military organization in the Republic of China Military, reorganizing and Sovietizing the political officer corps, surveillance, and Kuomintang party activities were propagated throughout the military. The political commissar held military rank equaling that of the unit commander to whom he was attached; moreover, the commissar also had the military authority to countermand the unit commander’s orders when … Nikita Khrushchev said it was the only time he ever witnessed such an outburst. During a winter night in 1969, the 88 year old Voroshilov started to feel unwell. [11] Voroshilov and Kulik turned out to be unable to put these reforms into practice. Its official name was Guidelines for the Treatment of Political Commissars ( Richtlinien für die Behandlung politischer Kommissare ). So where does one find information on political officers as used throughout the entire history of the Soviet … Under Khrushchev, Voroshilov behaved badly."[24]. In the periods of the Red Army's history when political officers were militarily subordinate to unit commanders, the position of political commissar did not exist. 2. In 1952, Voroshilov was appointed a member of the Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Translations Revolutionary Military Councils (or Revvoyensoviets- RVS) were established at army-, front-, fleet-, and flotilla-level, comprising at least three members — commander and two political workers. The actual Soviet Political Officer is a stock character in fictional portrayals of the Soviet-German War and Cold War era. This must be taken into account to understand why Stalin treated him critically and not invited him at all our conversations. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Voroshilov became a member of the Ukrainian Council of People's Commissars and Commissar for Internal Affairs along with Vasiliy Averin. His family proposed to call an ambulance immediately, but he adamantly refused. "Communists and the Red Cavalry: The Political Education of the Konarmiia in the Russian Civil War, 1918–20", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, People's Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union, People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs, Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army", Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow", Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy", Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR", Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR", Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Bibliography of the Post Stalinist Soviet Union, Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s, "Ворошилов, Климент Ефремович - это... Что такое Ворошилов, Климент Ефремович? The officers, called NS Führungsoffizier (NSFO), drawn from convinced officers and selected by the Nazi Party Chancellor Martin Bormann were to instil ideological conviction and reinforce combat morale through training lessons and teaching. commissar (plural commissars) An official of the Communist Party, often attached to a military unit, who was responsible for political education. The political commissar held military rank equaling that of the unit commander to whom he was attached; moreover, the commissar also had the military authority to countermand the unit commander’s orders when required. Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр (komissar), which means "commissary". The political workers were denominated "members of the RVS", not "commissars", despite being official political commissars. He was later replaced as Defense Commissar by Semyon Timoshenko. Despite mounting a heroic effort, Voroshilov failed to stop the German encirclement of Leningrad and was again relieved from his command in September 1941. Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary. [12], When territorial units were abolished Voroshilov noted that among the reasons for disbanding them was inability to train conscripts in the use of modern technology. In 1925, after the death of Mikhail Frunze, Voroshilov was appointed People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, a post he held until 1934. Below army level, the edinonachalie (single command) system was restored. [11] They were hopelessly ineffective: territorial conscript Alexey Grigorovich Maslov noted that he never fired a shot during his training, while it was noted that these units only underwent real training in the one month a year when experienced veterans returned. 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